Ms. Silman did not immediately reply to requests for comment.
While the timing of Ms. Silman’s resignation was a surprise, the coalition was always fragile and few analysts expected it to last a full four-year term. Its one-seat majority always meant that just a single defection would be enough to threaten the government’s collapse.
The eight parties in the coalition shared little in coming together last summer beyond their desire to oust Mr. Netanyahu, who had refused to resign despite standing trial for corruption. This prompted some of his long-term allies to leave his party and form their own right-wing factions.
Most of the parties did not initially want to join forces, and only did so because they considered the alternatives — either a fifth election or joining forces with Mr. Netanyahu — even worse.
Despite their differences, the coalition managed to unite on some key issues — most notably passing the first state budget in more than three years. But they clashed regularly over the rights of and funding for Israel’s Arab minority, the relationship between state and religion, and Israeli policy in the occupied West Bank.
Most groups within the coalition came under intense criticism, and sometimes abuse, from their base for allying with their political opponents and for making compromises that contradicted their political ideals.
Right-wing lawmakers like Ms. Silman were subjected to particularly strong hostility, with protesters picketing her home last summer and bombarding her with offensive text messages.
Arriving at her synagogue last June, she found several posters fixed on a wall outside, each with her portrait overlaid with the slogan that read, “Idit Silman stitched together a government with terror supporters.”
Reporting was contributed by Rawan Sheikh Ahmad from Haifa, Israel, and Gabby Sobelman from Rehovot, Israel.